This resource is enhanced by an Acrobat PDF file. Download the free Acrobat Reader. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: The two most common types of APA documents are the literature review and the experimental report.
Literature reviews do not present new research. They merely recap the research other experts have conducted and their findings. Format your document into six main components: Conduct original research using an experimental report explaining your methodology. An experimental report outlines and explains your own original research based on an experiment you designed and conducted.
It usually includes the same main sections used in the literature review plus supplemental data explaining your results. Experimental reports use the standard APA format including the six previously mentioned sections, appendices, tables and figures, content notes, and copyright statement if you use more than the allotted words or content from an outside source.
Since APA papers are utilized in the social sciences, they are inherently scientific in nature and require specific thinking and methods of communication.
Use the scientific method when writing your research. A good rule of thumb is to refer to the scientific method when writing your project. It will help you approach it with a methodically sound structure. The scientific method also helps you create the methodology for your primary research. Avoid descriptive sentences, and use precise language while keeping the content concise. Being overly descriptive or using poetic language will confuse your readers. The goal with APA to write precisely and accurately without overloading your document with too many words.
Focus on preciseness in your writing. Subjects can be defined as an internal or external component in the experiment. Participants or respondents are internal components. The wording changes the enter meaning. Voice and point of view are important in APA writing. You should use the first-person point of view when talking about your own research, but should mainly focus on the research itself and not the researcher. Write all sentences in the active voice. Follow APA formatting guidelines and update Word settings before you start writing.
APA documents follow specific formatting guidelines. They should be typed in a clear font such as Times New Roman and double-spaced on standard-sized paper with one-inch margins on all sides. The main body of an APA paper depends on its type and the assignment guidelines. Always include a title page, abstract, introduction, conclusion, and reference page.
All APA papers are written in the same writing style, general format, and citation format, though some of the sections included in each individual paper may differ as seen with the literature review.
List the title and running head, author and affiliated organization in your title page. A page header is also required and should be inserted at the top left of the page with the page number at the top right of the page. In the center of your title page, your title should appear in upper and lowercase letters. It is recommended that your title be no more than 12 words in length, though it may take up one or two lines.
All text on the title page and throughout your paper should be double-spaced. This tells the reader where the research was conducted. Summarize your key points and main ideas in the abstract, using clear and concise words. An abstract is a concise summary of the key points of your research and introduces the thesis statement.
Abstracts are not always necessary but are recommended by APA guidelines. They provide the reader with a first look and gain understanding of what they are about to read. The abstract should contain at least your research topic, research question s , purpose, and conclusions.
Experimental reports will also include the participants, methods, results, scope, and recommendations. Your abstract should be a single paragraph of words, double-spaced, and should not be indented. This will help researchers find your work if it ends up catalogues in a database. Use the introduction to familiarize audiences with the topic and purpose of your research. The introduction is the first paragraph of your paper and appears right below the title and does not need a heading of its own.
The title should be typed in upper and lowercase letters, centered, and in plain font. Indent and begin your introduction right below the title.
Introductions also provide a summary of the information and guides your audience in understanding what comes next. Answering these questions will help to ensure you have included all of the relevant information in your introduction:. These questions only help guide your structure and items to include in the introduction. When writing an experimental report, you will also want to include basic information about your participants, methods, results, and data analysis in the introduction.
Structure the main body according to key points, evidence, and discussion on each point. The main body will begin on the next line right below the introduction. Use H1 heading tags.
Be sure to label each section of your paper using the proper heading style. Change the preset color value to black. Divide methods and results into separate sections to clarify your process and outcome. The methods section will discuss how you conducted your research. This is where you will walk your readers through the procedures and methodology as if they were part of the experiment. Include the participants, apparatus and materials, and the procedure. Explain your independent, dependent, and control variables.
Remind readers of your hypothesis and research questions. Provide statistics to support your results and elaborate or qualify the overall conclusion and your data analysis. Discuss the results and importance, and summarize it in the conclusion paragraphs.
Do not use H4 headings in APA style unless you use them as headers for tables, graphs, images, etc. Use the conclusion and discussion to interpret your findings, evaluate your hypotheses and research questions, explore unexpected results, and relate your findings to the prior literature on your topic. A good conclusion section moves from specific to general. It concludes your paper, tying your results together with the overall story your paper is trying to tell.
Every APA paper requires a list of references. Your references should appear on their own page. Each new reference will begin on a new line with the first line of text aligned to the left of the page and the subsequent lines indented. They also include the year of publication, title of work, publisher, and location.
Capital letter also for subtitle. This is only an example for hardcopy print books. APA also has specific reference requirements for electronic sources, poetry, periodicals, and other commonly used sources. Refer to the current APA style guide for more listings.
Appendices are used to provide supplemental information, complex charts and tables, or explain difficult data. These may include mathematical proofs, lists of words, questionnaires, or a detailed description of an apparatus used in your research. English language practice pages. When it comes to writing a learning how to do a research paper, there are no quick fixes, or fill-in-the-blank templates that will allow you to complete your paper without investing a little time and effort.
The key to any research essay is first learning how to effectively manage your time and organize your source material. In the proceeding paragraphs, you will find helpful information on How to Write a Good Research Paper. If you are looking for more detailed guidelines on writing a research paper, be sure to consult the books and manuals recommended further down in the article. The key to any successful research paper is remembering to start as early as possible.
Take advantage of every day that you have available to you to pick your topic if one is not assigned , carry out your research and develop your research paper outline.
If you are not sure how to start a research paper, ask for guidance or research ideas online. Remember, if you decide to wait until just before the paper is due to get started, you might have difficulty finding research material or you may find that other students have already picked your preferred topic.
Not to mention the fact that a looming deadline, and a lack of finished paper, will ultimately result in unneeded stress. Next you will want to select your topic — unless one has been provided to you.
The best course of action is to select a topic that interests you, even if it seems complex or difficult. By choosing to work with a topic that you have a fond or even a small interest in, you are more likely to continue to be motivated to delve deeper into you research and will be able to engage more with your readers; something that is difficult to do when the subject matter is dry or mediocre. It will help add genuine value to your paper.
While reading your writing, readers may often feel if the topic was interesting to you; if it was, that may make the readers more interested and expecting to find something valuable in your paper and thus continue reading.
Keep in mind that there will be times when you will be assigned topics that are unfamiliar to you. In these types of situations it is helpful to read up on the topic. Journals, encyclopedias, guidebooks and libraries are all excellent resources to find background material on just about every topic out there. Despite the widespread access to information, largely attributed to easy accessibility of the Internet, there are just as many non-credible sources as there are credible.
The trick is learning how to differentiate between the two. One such way is to choose to use only verified sources like trade publications, scholarly articles, journals or books from the local library.
After you have concluded and organized your research, it is time to create an outline for research paper. The best way to start your outline is to draft your thesis statement. More often than not, the thesis statement is a single sentence opener — and the most important part of the entire paper.
The thesis should present the entire idea of your paper. It lays the groundwork for everything that follows and presents your argument to the reader. You will want to make sure that it is clear, concise and to the point. Next, you will group your research notes into sections the correlate with the various aspects of your topic or argument.
You might rearrange these several times until you find a format that seems the most logical. You will proofread, edit and rewrite later. Right now, your only concern is ensuring that you have found the most logical progressing for your argument and the corresponding supporting material.
If you are satisfied, begin to correct any grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors you find and add text as needed. It might be helpful, at this stage, to have someone else read your paper just to give it a fresh perspective. If you are satisfied, open your word processor to a blank page and type up your final version. You will want to be mindful of any specific spacing or formatting rules in the assignment details and make certain that you are also creating any supplementary pages that might be necessary.
For example, a cover page. Even if it has not been specifically requested, it is in good practice to ALWAYS include a works cited or reference page. This is the point where it is better to be safe than sorry.
An APA Research Paper Model Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg wrote the following research paper for a psychology class. As you review their paper, read the side notes and examine the.
The American Psychological Association or APA Writing Format is one of the most widely used formats in writing academic papers, particularly in the field of science.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. Psychology/Neuroscience How to Write an APA Style Research Paper PDF Version. An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, .
The Writing Center at Empire State College Genesee Valley Center Rochester, NY. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE APA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the APA style. Psychology/Neuroscience How to Write an APA Style Research Paper An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results.