However, if patients get to be treated in good-time, severe complications can be avoided. The causes of breast cancer have mostly been observed and learned though time, rather than infallibly settled. Therefore, they have come up with a list of factors that predispose women to breast cancer. These include getting older due to menopause , genetics family history of any type of cancer , prior cancer affections, non-cancerous lumps, dense breast tissue, high levels of estrogen exposure, obesity, height for no scientific reasons, taller women are more exposed to breast cancer , alcohol consumption, radiation exposure, hormone replacement therapy HRT , and certain jobs that suppose getting in contact with possible carcinogens and endocrine disruptors.
As any type of cancer, breast carcinoma can be invasive or non-invasive. In the case of invasive breast cancer, the abnormal cells are carried out of lobules and ducts, and spread all over the body organs through the bloodstream. Non-invasive cancer is less harmful, as the ill cells remain inside the lobules or ducts. First there will be a brief discussion on the normal and altered physiology of the breast followed by the etiology and possible causative factors.
Next there will be signs and symptoms which result from these alterations. Finally, the research paper will be ended with some complications and the prognosis of this disease.
Although breast cancer occurs in both men and women the prevalence is low in men. Out of every women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women. Please refer to the illustration above for help in understanding the structure of a normal breast. The female breast is primarily made up of lobules, ducts, and stroma. Lobules are milk producing glands, ducts are the milk passages that connect the lobules to the nipple and stroma is fatty and connective tissue that surrounds the ducts, lobules, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a clear fluid containing waste products and immune cells. There are also lymph nodes along the lymphatic vessels; these nodes are bean-shaped collections of immune cells.
Most lymphatic vessels of the breast connect to axillary lymph nodes which can be found in the armpit. According to NABCO cancer is a group of more than different diseases and occurs when cells become abnormal and are without control or order. The cells then continue to divide if when new ones are not needed. During the change from a normal cell to a cancerous cell, however, the cells requires many different gene alterations.
Eventually these altered genes form a tumor which may be benign non-cancerous or malignant cancerous. A benign tumor can damage local tissue but fortunately will not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors on the other hand spread to other areas of the body damaging and destroying healthy tissue.
A gene that is commonly found in breast cancer patients which have a high incidence of familial causes is the BRCA gene. While comparing healthy and cancerous cells of women diagnosed with the disease his team noticed that a gene called DBC2 had been completely deleted in the cancerous cells of seven women. This recent discovery may aid in the detection of the underlying causes of breast cancer.
As stated earlier the gene which causes inherited breast cancer is better understood. BRCA is a tumor suppressor gene. This gene is normally programmed to slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time. There are believed to be many risk factors of this disease, unfortunately, the reasons for the many of the risks are often unclear.
The most validated reason for breast cancer is estradiol exposure. For this reason, being a woman is the greatest risk factor of all. Women have many more breast cells which are constantly being exposed to growth hormones. White women are also higher risk than their black counterparts, though the reason for this is not known Apantaku, ACS, Due to estradiol, an early onset of menses or the late development of menopause puts a woman at greater risk because there are an increased number of menstrual cycles leading to extra estradiol production.
For this same reason, women whose cycles are shorter than 25 days; women who have used conventional animal estrogens or synthetic hormone for more than five years; and those women who used birth control before their first pregnancy, before 20, or for more than five years before 35 double and possibly triple the risk for developing breast cancer.
Hereditary, dietary and lifestyle factors are also contributors to beast cancer risk. Women whose mothers had breast cancer are at twice the risk for developing this disease, generally the younger the mother is at the time of diagnosis the greater the risk.
In the s, more than 4. In the past few years, nine million people developed cancers and today, there are more than 12 million people in the United States receiving cancer treatment.
More than half a million people die of cancer every year, that is, at the rate of 1, patients every day. Of all cancers, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, although it exists in men in rare cases. Doctors have identified several kinds of breast cancers. This is not to mention the many cases in which a tumor in the breast is nothing more than a cyst or a harmless benign lump ACS, online.
Those cancers which remain inside the duct without spreading out are known as in situ cancers. On the other hand, if the cancer cells spread out and invade other areas, they are known as invasive cancers. In inflammatory cases, the cancer cells spread very fast and invade other cells, but it can be identified very easily because it blocks the lymph vessels and the channels in the skin, turning the breast into a hard and warm surface with a clear red color ACS, online.
Breast cancers can be caused by a variety of factors. Until today, many doctors believe that breast cancer has to do with heredity. Furthermore, a gene known as p53 that is directly responsible for causing breast cancer has been found in extremely rare cases. In the families in which this gene existed, the risk of contracting breast cancer was 16 times more than average.
However, there still seems to be some evidence relating breast cancer to genetic factors. Both the breast and the glands that produce wax in ears belong to the same family of glands. Researchers found that individuals with ear glands that produce wet wax have a double risk with respect to breast cancer in contrast to those whose ear glands produce dry wax.
Another risk related factor to breast cancer is menstruation. Doctors have discovered that risks of breast cancer are very high for women who menstruate before the age of 12 or who reach menopause after the age of fifty. Women who do not get pregnant at all or who become pregnant after the age of thirty also face very high risks. Doctors today are becoming more convinced that diet and breast cancer could be connected in some strong relationship.
Breat cancer research paper outline. Thesis: Breast cancer, however, remains one of the major concerns in the medical field, mainly because it has many forms and happens to strike a large number of women. I-Cancer as the disease of the twentieth century.
Sample Research Papers. According to the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO, ), breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women in the United States, falling only behind skin cancers. This is why it is such an important disease to understand.
Research Paper On Breast Cancer Breast cancer, as the name says it, develops from breast cells and it is the most invasive type of cancer in females. It consists in two different forms of disease, depending on the place it develops. Research Paper on Breast Cancer - According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than , women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and % of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, ).
This article helps in writing a research paper on breast cancer by providing tips on building an intro, thesis, body, and a conclusion with detailed examples. Brest cancer is one of the most widespread diseases but there are difficulties in paper writing on it. In order to overcome those you may read this note.