Hispanics and Latinos have faced intense scrutiny from law enforcement officials under suspicion that they are illegal residents; Asian-Americans were discriminated against by police officers in the communities in which they lived when they began immigrating to the United States in large numbers in the s.
Those of Middle Eastern descent face profiling in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. A report released by the United States Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS provided results from a survey in which contacts between police officers and close to 17 million drivers were analyzed.
The results were significant for several reasons. First, although white drivers were more likely than both black and Hispanic drivers to be stopped by police for speeding, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to receive a ticket. Among the young, males drivers to be stopped, blacks and Hispanics were more likely to be searched.
These statistics are in spite of the fact that in a higher percentage of white drivers were licensed in the United States Many people equate the war on drugs as beginning the controversy regarding racial profiling.
The war on drugs gained intensity in the s, with the introduction of crack cocaine into mainstream America Pampel, In , as the war against drugs continued, the Drug Enforcement Agency DEA began training police officers across the country in recognizing a profile of a drug courier, based on intelligence gathered in how drugs were transported and introduced to various drug markets. The intelligence garnered by the DEA gave birth to Operation Pipeline, the knowledge of the relationship between drug networks and drug markets, and how drugs were transported between each.
Local and state police were trained to target individuals and vehicles that met certain characteristics, including but not limited to age and race characteristics of possible transporters. When the profiling lesson was distorted, officers began targeting black and Hispanic drivers, pulling over male drivers with these racial characteristics under the Defining Racial Profiling There is no single agreed upon definition of racial profiling. Background While the term racial profiling has only recently come into use, law enforcement agencies have long used race, ethnicity, and national origin as grounds for police action in the United States.
These situations are very drastic for the citizens. The police are suppose to protect and to serve, when they use racial profiling it effects citizens negatively.
Individuals are less likely to cooperate with people they do not trust, and may develop questions regarding all aspects of the criminal justice system Warren. Citizens may also respond to the law inappropriately, with the perception that they are going to be harmed or unfairly targeted by law officials.
They may also retaliate for injustices that happen in the past. On the other hand, law officials that use the practice of racial profiling may go into a situation with a higher degree of force and cause the situation to escalate. This mistrust for the criminal justice system can lead to riots and excessive violence.
The law governing racial profiling has grown considerably. This growth has resulted in numerous significant developments in various areas of law, all of which touch on the need for ongoing vigilance regarding police practices and law enforcement MacAlister.
But the practice of racial profiling is hard to prove. You have to prove whether the officer is being racially prejudiced or is it the result of organizational practices. Essentially, police officers have recently directed lethal force against young black men in a way that they probably would not against civilians of other racial groups.
First with Al-Qadea , then the rise of ISIS , and more general threats to national security emerging from nations in the Middle East, tensions are high. If he had been speaking any other language, he likely would not have been removed from the flight. The fact he was Muslim and a speaker of Arabic, the fellow passenger immediately made a mental connection regarding terrorism. Such examples, some extremely serious could be multiplied endlessly, and together could constitute a broad picture of the racial profiling of Muslims not only by law enforcement but every-day non-Muslim civilians.
Some stakeholders have suggested that racial profiling is in fact a valid law enforcement practice that should be permitted to continue within the United States. This argument has always been a pragmatic one in nature. Advocates of racial profiling contend that it's a necessary tool during an investigation. Law enforcement officers rely on their training and experience when developing a case and if their expertise leads them to believe that a subject is involved in.
For example, it is an undisputed fact that most terrorist threats targeting the United States today originate from Muslim countries ; therefore, if law enforcement observes numerous Muslims about committing this sort of crime, then it would perhaps be appropriate for him to in the future pay more attention to young Muslim men than say, elderly White women when attempting to prevent such crime from happening in the future. This argument is based on the fundamental insight that at a statistical level, people from certain demographics often are more likely to commit certain crimes associated with that background than those from an unrelated background.
From a law enforcement perspective, it would make no sense whatsoever to disregard this insight simply because it may strike some as politically insensitive. Rather, law enforcement officials must use all the information at their disposal to detect crimes in the present and deter future crimes. If some level of racial profiling were to provide crucial intelligence that did indeed deter crime, the conclusion is perhaps that racial profiling should in fact remain a part of law enforcement's more general professional arsenal.
Racial profiling would thus constitute a direct violation of civil rights. It would deny the right of every American to be legally treated first and foremost as an American and not primarily as a member of any one demographic category. There is also the obvious point that even the potential benefits of racial profiling may not always cover the costs.
The fact that most terrorists today happen to be Muslim does not conversely imply that most Muslims are actually terrorists. In short, innocent people are getting being persecuted for no reason whatsoever. This is clearly a serious moral dilemma. The pragmatic benefits of racial profiling may be getting undermined by the drawbacks of the practice. Ranja Natarajan of the Washington Post has written:. When law enforcement officers target residents based on race, religion or national origin rather than behavior, crime-fighting is less effective and community distrust of police grows" paragraph 4.
Such distrust gets in the way of law enforcement efforts and in the long run even helps to cultivate exactly the kind of environment within which crime tends to grow and thrive. In short, racial profiling tends toward creating an outgroup within the community by implicitly assuming that an entire population has a proclivity toward criminality; and this can actually contribute to creating the preconditions of criminality itself, in the manner of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
The main conclusion of the above discussion is the basis that racial profiling is a highly problematic practice that has more drawbacks than it does benefits. As the review of arguments has shown, racial profiling breaks down trust within a community, which in turn makes the existing problems of crime worse. At the level of principle, it is also a clear violation of civil-rights and equal treatment of all under the law. On the other hand, the point could also be argued that at some level, it would be almost impossible for most law enforcement officers to avoid racial profiling.
This is for the simple reason that racial profiling does in fact sometimes yield true insights regarding the nature of crime within a given community.
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Free Essays from Bartleby | There has always been racial profiling in our history. The problem here is that at some point the ones who are oppressed and.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Racial Profiling essays Racial profiling is the tactic of stopping someone because of the color of his or her skin and fleeting suspicion that the person is engaging in criminal behavior. This practice can be conducted with routine traffic stops, or can be completely random based on the car that is.
According to Williams (), the practice of racial profiling tends to judge people based on their way of life. The African-Americans are someti. Dylan White Professor Kerley Govt. 23 November Racial Profiling In the United States, ‘The land of the Free’, racial profiling of minority groups seems all too common. Many Americans believe that law enforcement as well as many other people often discriminates on minority groups simply because of their color of their skin.