A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source. For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning.
On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized. When you paraphrase material from a source, restate the information from an entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure.
A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms. This constitutes a misuse of sources.
In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources. At times, he needed to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly.
Read the passage from a website. Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently. People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely.
He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing.
Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words.
However, direct quotes can be powerful when used sparingly and with purpose. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way. Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points.
These are valid reasons to use quotations. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing. At best, this reduces the effectiveness of the quotations. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines:.
Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Notice how Jorge smoothly integrated the quoted material by starting the sentence with an introductory phrase. Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources.
The purpose of doing so is twofold:. You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography.
For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association also known as APA style. In-text citations document your sources within the body of your paper. These include two vital pieces of information: When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears. The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased.
Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence. Read the examples that follow.
Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, The period at the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses.
Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list at the end of your paper. While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. In general, you will include the following information:. Additional information may be included for different types of sources, such as online sources.
As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points. Recall that primary sources present firsthand information. Secondary sources are one step removed from primary sources. How you balance primary and secondary source material in your paper will depend on the topic and assignment.
Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Here are a few examples:. For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus. And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail.
For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research.
For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas. A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper.
Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing.
It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism. Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purpose—for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.
To avoid unintentional plagiarism, follow these guidelines:. Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. The only exceptions are facts or general statements that are common knowledge. Common-knowledge facts or general statements are commonly supported by and found in multiple sources.
For example, a writer would not need to cite the statement that most breads, pastas, and cereals are high in carbohydrates; this is well known and well documented.
However, if a writer explained in detail the differences among the chemical structures of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, a citation would be necessary. When in doubt, cite. In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. For academic purposes, however, the guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward. Fair use means that the writer legitimately uses brief excerpts from source material to support and develop his or her own ideas.
For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review. As he worked on his draft, Jorge was careful to cite his sources correctly and not to rely excessively on any one source. Occasionally, however, he caught himself quoting a source at great length. In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise. After reviewing the paragraph, Jorge realized that he had drifted into unoriginal writing.
Most of the paragraph was taken verbatim from a single article. Although Jorge had enclosed the material in quotation marks, he knew it was not an appropriate way to use the research in his paper.
Low-carbohydrate diets may indeed be superior to other diet plans for short-term weight loss. Heinz concluded that these plans yield quick results, an idea supported by a similar study conducted by Johnson and Crowe What remains to be seen, however, is whether this initial success can be sustained for longer periods. As Jorge revised the paragraph, he realized he did not need to quote these sources directly.
Instead, he paraphrased their most important findings. He also made sure to include a topic sentence stating the main idea of the paragraph and a concluding sentence that transitioned to the next major topic in his essay. Disorganization and carelessness sometimes lead to plagiarism.
A writer may cut and paste a passage from a website into her paper and later forget where the material came from. A writer who procrastinates may rush through a draft, which easily leads to sloppy paraphrasing and inaccurate quotations. Any of these actions can create the appearance of plagiarism and lead to negative consequences. Carefully organizing your time and notes is the best guard against these forms of plagiarism. Maintain a detailed working bibliography and thorough notes throughout the research process.
Check original sources again to clear up any uncertainties. Allow plenty of time for writing your draft so there is no temptation to cut corners. If you need to consult outside sources to research a document you are creating, follow the general guidelines already discussed, as well as any industry-specific citation guidelines. It is a point of honor taken seriously in every academic discipline and career field. Academic integrity violations have serious educational and professional consequences.
Students who are found guilty of academic integrity violations face consequences ranging from a failing grade to expulsion from the university. Employees may be fired for plagiarism and do irreparable damage to their professional reputation. In short, it is never worth the risk. This is a derivative of Writing for Success by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution, originally released and is used under CC BY-NC-SA.
For uses beyond those covered by law or the Creative Commons license, permission to reuse should be sought directly from the copyright owner. Learning Objectives Apply strategies for drafting an effective introduction and conclusion. Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Apply guidelines for citing sources within the body of the paper and the bibliography. Use primary and secondary research to support ideas. Identify the purposes for which writers use each type of research.
The Structure of a Research Paper Research papers generally follow the same basic structure: Writing Your Introduction There are several approaches to writing an introduction, each of which fulfills the same goals. Many writers like to begin with one of the following catchy openers: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets I. Introduction Over the past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. Exercise 1 Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper.
Tip Writers often work out of sequence when writing a research paper. Writing Your Conclusion In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed.
Writing at Work If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section. Using Source Material in Your Paper One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Summarizing Sources When you summarize material from a source, you zero in on the main points and restate them concisely in your own words.
Summary In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time Howell, Tip A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source. Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized.
Paraphrasing Sources When you paraphrase material from a source, restate the information from an entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure. Source Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently.
Summary People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, We do agree that it is a herculean task, but not one that is impossible. With the right kind of help from our experts, you can get your research paper rough draft ready in no time.
You might wonder after reading this brief piece, if research paper writing is as simple as this. Well, if you were to approach the whole task in a systematic and sequential way, there is no doubt that you could finish it in time to meet your deadlines.
Unfortunately, there are very few institutions that take the time to instruct students on the art of research paper writing or documentation. It is therefore our fervent request that you go through this site carefully. You will be pleasantly surprised at the ways in which we can ensure that your writing is done within the specified timeframe.
For our expert writers, writing research paper rough drafts are just as easy as doing the final paper. If you could get in touch with us, we could tell you how to go about the whole process in a proper way. Research Paper Rough Draft — Learn it the easy way When you have decided to carry out research in a particular subject, it is necessary for you to pay attention to the documentation of this research.
Take a look at these steps; they could help you with research paper rough drafts Write out the thesis statement that you have formulated after a lot of consideration and brainstorming.
If you are not sure about forming this statement, you could ask us for help. When you write your statement down, it helps to focus on it, right through the writing process.
Keep writing down points as and when you think of them. However, it would help if you could make a few subheadings first.
At last, you are ready to begin writing the rough draft of your research paper. Putting your thinking and research into words is exciting. It can also be challenging.
The rough draft is the best time to double check that your paper and the arguments, points, or clarifications made within it all follow sensible logic. Ideas must be given breathing room and allowed to develop naturally as the essay goes on.
With the right kind of help from our experts, you can get your research paper rough draft ready in no time. How to Write a Research Paper Rough Draft? Before you begin to write your research paper rough draft, you have some decisions to make READ MORE HERE.
Writing Rough Draft of Research Paper You must have your outline completed and your note cards organized into categories before writing your paper. You are going to write in sentence and paragraph form what you have on your outline. The rough draft is intended to be the first attempt at writing the research paper which contains most of the information and ideas intended to be presented in the final paper, without bothering.