Too many or too less of hormones are harmful. Some men are over-patient, overzealous, overactive and overexcited while others are lazy, inactive, and weak. The reason may be secretion of more hormones in the first case and less hormones in the latter case. For a normal personality there should be a balanced secretion of hormones. Heredity may affect personality in another way, i.
If boys in a society prefers slim girls as their companion, such girls will receive greater attention of the society providing them thereby more opportunities to develop their personality. According to Allport, Gordon, W. However, heredity does not mould human personality alone and unaided.
Where in members of the same family, in a similar environment, we can see great differences in personality, we may ascribe these in part at least to differences in gene contributions. We can also guess that some of the family similarities in personality are genetically influenced. In other words, it may be said that the available evidence does not support the dogmatic view that personality is biologically transmitted.
Of course, there are some traits which seem to be more directly affected by heredity than others. Manual skills, intelligence and sensory discriminations are some of the abilities which appear more highly developed in some family lines than others.
Heredity only furnishes the materials out of which experience will mould the personality. Experience determines the way these materials will be used. An individual may be energetic because of his heredity, but whether he is active on his own belief or on behalf of others is a matter of his training.
Whether he exerts himself in making money or in scholarly activity is also dependent upon his bringing. If personality is a direct consequence of heredity tendencies or traits then all the sons and daughters of the same parents brought up in the same environment should have identical personalities or at least personalities that are very much alike. But investigation shows that even at the tender age of three or four years they show quite distinct personalities.
There can be little doubt that culture largely determines the types of personality that will predominate in the particular group. According to some thinkers, personality is the subjective aspect of culture. They regard personality and culture as two sides of the same coin. In the anthropologist Ralph Linton and the psychoanalyst Abram Kardinar began a series of joint explorations of the relationship between culture and personality by subjecting to minute study reports of several primitive societies and one modern American village.
The traditions, customs, mores, religion, institutions, moral and social standards of a group affect the personality of the group members. From the moment of birth, the child is treated in ways which shape his personality. Every culture exerts a series of general influences upon the individuals who grow up under it. As for the termer he provides examples of the influence of plumbing on the formation of habits and attitudes favourable to cleanliness and the relation of time-pieces to punctuality.
The American Indians who have no clocks or watches in their culture have little notion of keeping appointments with any exactness. According to him, they have no sense of time. The personality of an American Indian differs from that of a white man in the matter of punctuality and this is because of differences in their culture.
Similarly, some cultures greedy value cleanliness as witnessed by the saying: The Eskimos are dirty because they have to hang a bag of snow down their backs to melt it in order to get water. A man who has just to turn on a tap of water will naturally be more clean than an Eskimo.
Cleanliness, therefore, is a matter not of heredity but of the type of culture. As for the connection between the non-material culture and personality, language affords an instructive example.
We know that one of the principal differences between man and animals is that he alone possesses speech. Language can be learnt only in society. People who cannot speak exhibit warped personality. Since language is the essential medium through which the individual obtains his information and his attitudes, therefore, it is the principal vehicle for the development of personality. Moreover, speech itself becomes a trait of personality.
The coarse voice of woodcutter can be readily distinguished from the hushed tones of a man. The short, crisp, guttural speech of the German seems to be part of his personality, as does the fluid, flowing voluble speech of the Spaniard. Movements of the hands and shoulders in speech are regarded as part of the very core of the personalities of Italians and Jews.
The Jews use their gestures for emphasis only, while Italians depend upon them to convey part of the meaning. Another illustration of the influence of culture on personality is the relationship of men and women. In the earlier period when farming was the principal business, women generally had no occupations outside the home, and naturally, therefore, they were economically dependent upon their fathers or husbands.
Obedience was a natural consequence of such conditions. But today hundreds of women work outside the homes and earn salaries. They enjoy equal rights with men and are not so dependent upon them as they were in the past.
With the growing realisation of the importance of culture for personality, sociologists have recently made attempts to identify the factors in particular cultures which give a distinctive stamp to the individuals within the group. Ruth Benedict analyzed the cultures of three primitive tribes and found that cultures may be divided into two major types—The Apollonian and the Dionysian. The Apollonian type is characterised by restraint, even temperances, moderation and co- operativeness, whereas the Dionysian type is marked by emotionalism, excess, pursuit of prestige, individualism and competitiveness.
The personality of the Hindus in India differs greatly from that of Englishmen. The Hindu culture lays emphasis not on material and worldly things, but on things spiritual and religious. In every Hindu family there is a religious environment.
The mother gets up early in the morning, takes bath and spends an hour in meditation. When the children get up, they go and touch the feet of their parents and bow before the family gods or goddesses.
From the various illustrations cited so far it is thus clear that culture greatly moulds personality. The individual ideas and behaviour are largely the results of cultural conditioning. There is a great difference of ideas between the Hindu devotee immersed in religion and the Russian Communist who thoroughly rejects it. However, it should not be concluded that culture is a massive die that shapes all who come under it with an identical pattern.
All the people of a given culture are not of one cast. Personality traits differ within any culture, some people in any culture are more aggressive than others, some are more submissive, kind and competitive. Personality is not totally determined by culture, even though no personality escapes its influence. It is only one determinant among others. No culture yet observed has been able to eradicate the difference in the temperaments of the persons who compose it.
It is always a give and take affair. Personality is also determined by another factor, namely, the particular and unique experiences. The type of people who meet the child daily has a major influence on his personality. In the home is fashioned the style of personality that will by and large characterise the individual throughout his life. The child picks up the language of his parents.
Problems of psychological and emotional adjustments arise and are solved appropriately by each child in terms of the cultural values and standards of the family. The family set up tends to bring the child into contact with his play-mates and teachers. What his play-game members are, and his school teachers are will also determine his personality development. Group influences are relatively greater in early childhood. This is the period when the relationships of the child with his mother, father and siblings affect profoundly the organisation of his drives and emotions, the deeper and unconscious aspects of his personality.
A certain degree of maturation is needed before the child can understand the adult norms. The basic personality structure that is formed during this period is difficult to change. Whether a person becomes a leader, a coward, an imitator?
Group interaction moulds his personality. Away from the group he may become insane or develop queer attitudes. As a child grows he develops wish for response and wish for recognition. How the idea of self develops in the child is an important study. The self does not exist at birth but begins to arise as the child learns something of the world of sensation about him. He comes to learn of what belongs to him and takes pride in his possessions.
He learns that parts of his body belong to him. He becomes acquainted with his name and paternity and comes to distinguish himself from others. The praise and blame he receives from others account in large measure for his conduct. The development of self leads to the growth of conscience and ego. Our view of self conception is usually based on the opinion of others about us. We attach importance only to the opinions of those whom we consider for one reason or the other significant than others.
Our parents are usually most significant than others since they are the ones who are intimately related to us and have greatest power than others over us especially during the early years of life. I once read about some twins that were separated at birth and were raised in completely different countries.
Both of them had similar tastes in foods and were morbidly obese. This sheds some light on the genetics of obesity. I think now I am getting to your point. I am hoping to further improve myself on the thing that you have mentioned: Here's a good one to ponder Hunbbel. Why did my interest go to that article.
Why is this one as you say the only one that gets you decent traffic? This is not a proper synonym but consider fish-bait. Once while fishing the biggest bass fish ever came into the shallow water.
I tried tossing everything- worms, lures etc in front of the fish but the fish wasn't interested. Then I remembered a friend had some crayfish over on the pier. He hit that bait like no tomorrow and turned into the biggest freshwater fish I've ever caught. Probably a State record but I had to return him to the water. The point is find out what you have to offer readers that will be interesting for them. From what can be deduced from your site I'd go to writers sites who write in the general areas you do and see what's working for them and what people are really going for.
Read and sincerely comment on the ones you really like if your not already doing this. In time you'll see the fruits of your efforts and your decent traffic will be spread out amongst many Hubs.
I really enjoy reading your article on person. I pray for more wisdom to help educate us more. Thank you sir for stopping by. Yes the hub is on Google's 1st page which I didn't even try to lol.
There are some other hubs as well - on Google's 1st page, but this is the only one that brings me a decent amount of traffic daily. Thank you for your sincere advice sir. In fact, now I do the same thing i. Actually this hub was my 8th or 9th hub and I was just starting out so I didn't have much knowledge about the lay-out, but now that I have, I do precisely what you are suggesting me: And I would love to have your sincere and honest opinions about my articles. You are very welcome: Hunbbel your obviously intelligent and have done your research well.
Btw, this Hub is on the first page of Google under the title. How are your others? Last night after reading your poem then posting I'd read an article or two of yours today with the thought of telling you what I thought so here it is: The only thing I would advise- and some one with more knowledge might advise different- is putting the first part links last instead of at the beginning. I'll read some more through the week if you wish.
I see your author score has gone up 4 points- your getting there my friend. During my psychology days, I found this topic of yours on it's lessons and I really stirs up my interest because it deals with studying our own race! Oh thank you so much. A positive comment from such a prolific and experienced hubber like you, really mean a lot to me: Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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According to Paul H Mussen "each culture expects, and trains, its members to behave in the ways that are acceptable to the group. To a marked degree, the child's cultural group defines the range of experiences and situations he is likely to encounter and the values and personality characteristics that will be reinforced and hence learned". Culture requires both conformity and acceptance from its members.
The personality of an individual to a marked extent is determined by the culture in which he or she is brought up. It follows that a person reared in a western culture has a different personality from a person reared in our Indian culture.
Whereas the culture generally prescribes and limits what a person can be taught, it is the family, and later the social group, which selects, interprets and dispenses the culture.
Thus, the family probably has the most significant impact on early personality development. A substantial amount of empirical evidence indicates that the overall home environment created by the parents, in addition to their direct influence, is critical to personality development.
For example, children reared in a cold, un stimulating home are much more likely to be socially and emotionally Mal adjusted than children rose by parents in a warm, loving and stimulating environment. The parents play an especially important part in the identification process, which is important to the person's early development. According to Mischel, the process can be examined from three different perspectives.
From all three perspectives, the identification process is fundamental to the understanding of personality development. The home environment also influences the personality of an individual. Siblings brothers and sisters also contribute to personality. There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons, groups and especially organizations, which greatly influence an individual's personality. This is commonly called the socialization process.
Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioural potentialities that are open to him or her. Socialization starts with the initial contact between a mother and her new infant. After infancy, other members of the immediate family — father, brothers, sisters and close relatives or friends, then the social group — peers, school friends and members of the work group, play influential roles.
Socialization process is especially relevant to organizational behaviour because the process is not confined to early childhood, taking place rather throughout one's life. In particular, evidence is accumulating that socialization may be one of the best explanations for why employees be have the way they do in today's organizations. Human personality is also influenced by situational factors. The effect of environment is quite strong.
Knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. An individual's personality, while generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one's personality. According to Milgram "Situation exerts an important press on the individual.
ADVERTISEMENTS: Personality: Meaning and Determinants of Personality! Man is not born a person. At birth he is an infant possessing the potentiality of becoming a person. After birth he associates with other human beings and comes under the influence of their culture. As a result of a variety of experiences and social influences he .
Determinants of Personality. Personality is a result of the combination of four factors- physical environment, heredity, culture and particular experiences. Geographical environment sometimes determines cultural variability. Man comes to form ideas and attitudes according to the physical environment he lives in.
Feb 20, · Before discussing the most common determinants of personality, it is necessary to answer the question, "What is personality?" For the answer, we turn to American psychologist Gordon Allport, who describes personality as: The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems Reviews: Major Determinants Of Personality - Free online tutorials for Personality Principles Of Management And Organisational Behaviour () courses with .
Determinants of Personality. 1. INTRODUCTION Personality can be described as: the collective qualities, characteristics, disposition and values of a person which distinguish him or her from others, and which will affect the manners he/she reacts toward or interacts with other people and his /her environment. A: The determinants of personality are the factors that influence the development of personality, such as nature, or biological, and nurture, or environmental.