Skip Nav

Grover Cleveland

Early life and career

❶The table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of Pres. The first Democrat elected after the Civil War in , our 22nd and 24th President Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later and

Early Career

Navigation menu
Search form
You are here

Morton of New York for vice president. Cleveland was easily renominated at the Democratic convention in St. Following Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks death in , the Democrats chose Allen G. Thurman of Ohio to be Cleveland's new running mate. The Republicans gained the upper hand in the campaign, as Cleveland's campaign was poorly managed by Calvin S. Brice and William H. Barnum , whereas Harrison had engaged more aggressive fundraisers and tacticians in Matt Quay and John Wanamaker.

The Republicans campaigned heavily on the tariff issue, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North. Hill , weakening Cleveland's support in that swing state. But unlike that year, when Cleveland had triumphed in all four, in he won only two, losing his home state of New York by 14, votes.

As Frances Cleveland left the White House, she told a staff member, "Now, Jerry, I want you to take good care of all the furniture and ornaments in the house, for I want to find everything just as it is now, when we come back again. This affiliation was more of an office-sharing arrangement, though quite compatible. Cleveland's law practice brought only a moderate income, perhaps because Cleveland spent considerable time at the couple's vacation home Gray Gables at Buzzard Bay, where fishing became his obsession.

The Harrison administration worked with Congress to pass the McKinley Tariff , an aggressively protectionist measure and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act , which increased money backed by silver; [] these were among policies Cleveland deplored as dangerous to the nation's financial health. Cleveland's enduring reputation as chief executive and his recent pronouncements on the monetary issues made him a leading contender for the Democratic nomination.

Hill , a Senator for New York. Stevenson of Illinois, a silverite. Gray of Indiana for vice president, they accepted the convention favorite. The Republicans re-nominated President Harrison, making the election a rematch of the one four years earlier.

Unlike the turbulent and controversial elections of , , and , the election was, according to Cleveland biographer Allan Nevins , "the cleanest, quietest, and most creditable in the memory of the post-war generation," [] in part because Harrison's wife, Caroline, was dying of tuberculosis. Following Caroline Harrison's death on October 25, two weeks before the national election, Cleveland and all of the other candidates stopped campaigning, thus making Election Day a somber and quiet event for the whole country as well as the candidates.

The issue of the tariff worked to the Republicans' advantage in The legislative revisions of the past four years also made imported goods so expensive that now many voters favored tariff reform and were skeptical of big business. Weaver promised Free Silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour work day.

Shortly after Cleveland's second term began, the Panic of struck the stock market, and he soon faced an acute economic depression. Cleveland, forced against his better judgment to lobby the Congress for repeal, convinced enough Democrats — and along with eastern Republicans, they formed a 48—37 majority for repeal.

Having succeeded in reversing the Harrison administration's silver policy, Cleveland sought next to reverse the effects of the McKinley tariff. Wilson in December The bill was next considered in the Senate, where it faced stronger opposition from key Democrats led by Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland, who insisted on more protection for their states' industries than the Wilson bill allowed.

In , Cleveland had campaigned against the Lodge Bill , [] which would have strengthened voting rights protections through the appointing of federal supervisors of congressional elections upon a petition from the citizens of any district. The Enforcement Act of had provided for a detailed federal overseeing of the electoral process, from registration to the certification of returns. Cleveland succeeded in ushering in the repeal of this law ch. Harris , U. Teasley , U. The Panic of had damaged labor conditions across the United States, and the victory of anti-silver legislation worsened the mood of western laborers.

Coxey began to march east toward Washington, D. The Pullman Strike had a significantly greater impact than Coxey's Army. A strike began against the Pullman Company over low wages and twelve-hour workdays, and sympathy strikes, led by American Railway Union leader Eugene V.

Debs , soon followed. Altgeld of Illinois, who became his bitter foe in Leading newspapers of both parties applauded Cleveland's actions, but the use of troops hardened the attitude of organized labor toward his administration. The warning was appropriate, for in the Congressional elections, Republicans won their biggest landslide in decades, taking full control of the House, while the Populists lost most of their support. Cleveland's factional enemies gained control of the Democratic Party in state after state, including full control in Illinois and Michigan, and made major gains in Ohio, Indiana, Iowa and other states.

Wisconsin and Massachusetts were two of the few states that remained under the control of Cleveland's allies. The Democratic opposition were close to controlling two-thirds of the vote at the national convention, which they needed to nominate their own candidate.

They failed for lack of unity and a national leader, as Illinois governor John Peter Altgeld had been born in Germany and was ineligible to be nominated for president. When Cleveland took office he faced the question of Hawaiian annexation. In his first term, he had supported free trade with Hawai'i and accepted an amendment that gave the United States a coaling and naval station in Pearl Harbor.

In early they overthrew her , set up a republican government under Sanford B. Dole , and sought to join the United States. Cleveland agreed with Blount's report, which found the populace to be opposed to annexation.

Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that not only prohibited new European colonies, but also declared an American national interest in any matter of substance within the hemisphere. The second Cleveland administration was as committed to military modernization as the first, and ordered the first ships of a navy capable of offensive action.

Construction continued on the Endicott program of coastal fortifications begun under Cleveland's first administration. Herbert , having recently adopted the aggressive naval strategy advocated by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan , successfully proposed ordering five battleships the Kearsarge and Illinois classes and sixteen torpedo boats. The battleships and seven of the torpedo boats were not completed until —, after the Spanish—American War.

In the midst of the fight for repeal of Free Silver coinage in , Cleveland sought the advice of the White House doctor, Dr. O'Reilly, about soreness on the roof of his mouth and a crater-like edge ulcer with a granulated surface on the left side of Cleveland's hard palate.

Samples of the tumor were sent anonymously to the Army Medical Museum. The diagnosis was not a malignant cancer, but instead an epithelioma. Cleveland decided to have surgery secretly, to avoid further panic that might worsen the financial depression.

Joseph Bryant , left for New York. The surgeons operated aboard the Oneida , a yacht owned by Cleveland's friend E. Benedict , as it sailed off Long Island. Keen , wrote an article detailing the operation. Cleveland enjoyed many years of life after the tumor was removed, and there was some debate as to whether it was actually malignant.

Several doctors, including Dr. Keen, stated after Cleveland's death that the tumor was a carcinoma. Cleveland's trouble with the Senate hindered the success of his nominations to the Supreme Court in his second term. Hornblower to the Court. Cleveland continued to defy the Senate by next appointing Wheeler Hazard Peckham another New York attorney who had opposed Hill's machine in that state.

Coudert , but Cleveland acquiesced in an inoffensive choice, that of Senator Edward Douglass White of Louisiana , whose nomination was accepted unanimously. No new states were admitted to the Union during Cleveland's first term. On February 22, , 10 days before leaving office, the 50th Congress passed the Enabling Act of , authorizing North Dakota , South Dakota , Montana , and Washington to form state governments and to gain admission to the Union.

All four officially became states in November , during the first year of Benjamin Harrison's administration. Cleveland signed it on July 16, Cleveland's agrarian and silverite enemies gained control of the Democratic party in , repudiated his administration and the gold standard, and nominated William Jennings Bryan on a Silver Platform. In the conservatives, with Cleveland's support, regained control of the Democratic Party and nominated Alton B.

In a article in The Ladies Home Journal , Cleveland weighed in on the women's suffrage movement, writing that "sensible and responsible women do not want to vote. The relative positions to be assumed by men and women in the working out of our civilization were assigned long ago by a higher intelligence. The incumbent, John F. Dryden , was not seeking re-election, and some Democrats felt that the former president could attract the votes of some disaffected Republican legislators who might be drawn to Cleveland's statesmanship and conservatism.

Cleveland's health had been declining for several years, and in the autumn of he fell seriously ill. In his first term in office, Cleveland sought a summer house to escape the heat and smells of Washington, D. He secretly bought a farmhouse, Oak View or Oak Hill , in a rural upland part of the District of Columbia, in , and remodeled it into a Queen Anne style summer estate. He sold Oak View upon losing his bid for re-election in Not long thereafter, suburban residential development reached the area, which came to be known as Oak View, and then Cleveland Heights, and eventually Cleveland Park.

Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services. Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffalo Normal School. Mount Cleveland , a volcano in Alaska, is also named after him. President who was filmed. This twelve-cent issue accompanied a thirteen-cent stamp in the same definitive series that depicted his old rival Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland's only two subsequent stamp appearances have been in issues devoted to the full roster of U.

Presidents, released, respectively, in and Cleveland's portrait was on the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States presidential election, and Grover Cleveland Presidential campaign, List of federal judges appointed by Grover Cleveland.

Venezuela Crisis of The Nominating Conventions of — by Stan M. Benninsky survived the war. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved March 27, The American Presidents Series: The 22nd and 24th President, — and — Henry Holt and Company. Retrieved October 14, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.

Retrieved January 27, National Archives and Records Administration. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. No Negro Domination in the South! Meador, "Lamar to the Court: Retrieved February 18, Retrieved May 30, Retrieved February 22, The vote was to Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History.

University of Chicago Press. Wilson and Tariff Reform: Hedges , "North America", in William L. See also In re Debs. Letters of Grover Cleveland, — p. Jensen , The Winning of the Midwest: Canfield "The Foreign Rifle: J R Soc Med.

The Surgical Operations on President Cleveland in Trans Stud Coll Physic Philadelphia. Hal Williams, Years of Decision: Retrieved February 23, Retrieved March 4, Nevins makes no mention of these last words. Discover the Hidden New Jersey. Retrieved August 22, Cleveland Park Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved April 8, Retrieved November 11, Retrieved September 9, Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved October 17, Scholarly studies Bauer, K.

Jack ; Roberts, Stephen S. Register of Ships of the U. Grover Cleveland — " Presidential Studies Quarterly 15 1: A Study in Character , Grover Cleveland's New Foreign Policy: Paul, An Honest President: Arthur Pue Gorman Lynch, G. Presidential Elections in the Nineteenth Century: Why Culture and the Economy Both Mattered. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography Vol. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation.

From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, — Volume V, — Macmillan, The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of History of the United States from the Compromise of Presidents from Hayes Through McKinley: The Making of a President, Cleveland as President Atlantic Monthly March Primary sources Cleveland, Grover. Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party.

Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, — The Cabinet Diary of William L. Wilson, — online edition. Find more about Grover Cleveland at Wikipedia's sister projects. Articles related to Grover Cleveland. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Blaine , a longtime Washington insider whose reputation for dishonesty and financial impropriety prompted the Republican Mugwump faction to bolt their party.

As a result, Cleveland won the Democratic nomination with ease. Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine! Although Blaine was present when the fateful words were spoken, he did nothing to dissociate himself from the remark. The general election was determined by electoral votes from New York state, which Blaine lost to Cleveland by fewer than 1, votes. As president, Cleveland continued to act in the same negative capacity that had marked his tenures as mayor and governor.

He nullified fraudulent grants to some 80 million acres 30 million hectares of Western public lands and vetoed hundreds of pension bills that would have sent federal funds to undeserving Civil War veterans. He also received credit for two of the more significant measures enacted by the federal government in the s: In Cleveland, a lifelong bachelor, married Frances Folsom, the daughter of his former law partner.

Frances Cleveland , 27 years younger than her husband, proved to be a very popular first lady. To all appearances the marriage was a happy one, though during the presidential campaign she was forced to publicly refute Republican-spread rumours that Cleveland had beaten her during drunken rages. Cleveland ran for reelection in The major issue of the presidential campaign was the protective tariff. Cleveland opposed the high tariff, calling it unnecessary taxation imposed upon American consumers, while Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison defended protectionism.

On election day, Cleveland won about , more popular votes than Harrison, evidence of the esteem in which the president was held and to the widespread desire for a lower tariff. Yet Harrison won the election by capturing a majority of votes in the electoral college to , largely as a result of lavish campaign contributions from pro-tariff business interests in the crucial states of New York and Indiana.

Cleveland spent the four years of the Harrison presidency in New York City, working for a prominent law firm. When the Republican-dominated Congress and the Harrison administration enacted the very high McKinley Tariff in and made the surplus in the treasury vanish in a massive spending spree, the path to a Democratic victory in seemed clear.

Cleveland believed that the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of —which required the secretary of the treasury to purchase 4. He called Congress into special session and, over considerable opposition from Southern and Western members of his own party, forced the repeal of the act. Apart from assuring a sound—i. His popularity sank even lower when—distraught over the diminishing quantity of gold in the treasury—he negotiated with a syndicate of bankers headed by John Pierpont Morgan to sell government bonds abroad for gold.

Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to quell violence at George M. The strike was broken within a week, and the president received the plaudits of the business community. However, he had severed whatever support he still had in the ranks of labour. In foreign policy , Cleveland displayed the same courageous righteousness that characterized much of his domestic policy. He withdrew from the Senate a treaty for the annexation of Hawaii when he learned how the Hawaiian leader, Queen Liliuokalani , had been overthrown in an American-led coup.

He also refused to be swept along with popular sentiment for intervention on behalf of Cuban insurgents fighting for independence from Spain. Yet he was not totally immune to the new spirit of American assertiveness on the international stage. By invoking the Monroe Doctrine , for example, he forced Britain to accept arbitration of a boundary dispute between its colony of British Guiana now Guyana and neighbouring Venezuela.

When William Jennings Bryan delivered his impassioned Cross of Gold speech , the delegates not only nominated the little-known Bryan for president but also repudiated Cleveland—the first and only president ever to be so repudiated by his own party.

Cleveland retired to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became active in the affairs of Princeton University as a lecturer in public affairs and as a trustee — As the rancour over the gold standard subsided with the return of prosperity, Cleveland regained much of the public admiration he had earlier enjoyed. Never again, however, would the Democratic Party adhere to the pro-business, limited-government views that so dominated his presidency, and Cleveland remains the most conservative Democrat to have occupied the White House since the Civil War.

The table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of Pres. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:


Main Topics

Privacy Policy

Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, – June 24, ) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (– and –).

Privacy FAQs

Stephen Grover Cleveland was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, on March 18, He was the fifth of nine children of Richard Falley Cleveland (), a Presbyterian minister, and Anne Neal Cleveland ().

About Our Ads

The First Democrat elected after the Civil War, Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later. One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in New Jersey in Grover Cleveland of New York, was in many respects the antithesis of Blaine. He was a relative newcomer to politics. He was a relative newcomer to politics. He had been elected mayor of Buffalo in and governor of New York in

Cookie Info

Watch video · Grover Cleveland, born March 18, , was a tough opponent of political corruption who fiercely guarded the integrity of the offices in which he served. He lost a second term as incumbent but won back the presidency four years later. Stephen Grover Cleveland fell into politics without really trying. In , local businessmen asked Cleveland, then a young lawyer, to run for mayor of Buffalo, New York. He agreed and won the Democratic nomination and the election. As mayor, Cleveland exposed city .