Skip Nav

Psychology

psychobiology

❶Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions.

Psychology Glossary

Navigation menu
psy·cho·bi·ol·o·gy
psychology

The name industrial and organizational psychology I—O arose in the s and became enshrined as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, in Personnel psychology, a subfield of I—O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. I—O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology , examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction , and productivity.

One role for psychologists in the military is to evaluate and counsel soldiers and other personnel. S Army psychology includes psychological screening, clinical psychotherapy, suicide prevention , and treatment for post-traumatic stress, as well as other aspects of health and workplace psychology such as smoking cessation. Psychologists may also work on a diverse set of campaigns known broadly as psychological warfare.

Psychologically warfare chiefly involves the use of propaganda to influence enemy soldiers and civilians. In the case of so-called black propaganda the propaganda is designed to seem like it originates from a different source. Medical facilities increasingly employ psychologists to perform various roles. A prominent aspect of health psychology is the psychoeducation of patients: Health psychologists can also educate doctors and conduct research on patient compliance.

Psychologists in the field of public health use a wide variety of interventions to influence human behavior. These range from public relations campaigns and outreach to governmental laws and policies. Psychologists study the composite influence of all these different tools in an effort to influence whole populations of people. Black American psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark studied the psychological impact of segregation and testified with their findings in the desegregation case Brown v.

Board of Education Positive psychology is the study of factors which contribute to human happiness and well-being, focusing more on people who are currently healthy. In , Clinical Psychological Review published a special issue devoted to positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude journaling and the physical expression of gratitude.

Positive psychological interventions have been limited in scope, but their effects are thought to be superior to that of placebos , especially with regard to helping people with body image problems. Quantitative psychological research lends itself to the statistical testing of hypotheses. Although the field makes abundant use of randomized and controlled experiments in laboratory settings, such research can only assess a limited range of short-term phenomena.

Thus, psychologists also rely on creative statistical methods to glean knowledge from clinical trials and population data. The measurement and operationalization of important constructs is an essential part of these research designs. A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to make strong inferences about causal relationships.

In an experiment, the researcher alters parameters of influence, called independent variables , and measures resulting changes of interest, called dependent variables. Prototypical experimental research is conducted in a laboratory with a carefully controlled environment. Repeated-measures experiments are those which take place through intervention on multiple occasions. In research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy , experimenters often compare a given treatment with placebo treatments, or compare different treatments against each other.

Treatment type is the independent variable. The dependent variables are outcomes, ideally assessed in several ways by different professionals. Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions.

Researchers can use common sense to consider how much the nonrandom assignment threatens the study's validity. Psychologists will compare the achievement of children attending phonics and whole language classes. Experimental researchers typically use a statistical hypothesis testing model which involves making predictions before conducting the experiment, then assessing how well the data supports the predictions. These predictions may originate from a more abstract scientific hypothesis about how the phenomenon under study actually works.

Analysis of variance ANOVA statistical techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result from random fluctuations in data. Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, checking the validity of experimental manipulations, and for other psychological topics.

Most commonly, psychologists use paper-and-pencil surveys. However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Web-based surveys are increasingly used to conveniently reach many subjects.

Neuropsychological tests , such as the Wechsler scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test , are mostly questionnaires or simple tasks used which assess a specific type of mental function in the respondent. These can be used in experiments, as in the case of lesion experiments evaluating the results of damage to a specific part of the brain.

Observational studies analyze uncontrolled data in search of correlations; multivariate statistics are typically used to interpret the more complex situation. Cross-sectional observational studies use data from a single point in time, whereas longitudinal studies are used to study trends across the life span. Longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore detect more individual, rather than cultural, differences. However, they suffer from lack of controls and from confounding factors such as selective attrition the bias introduced when a certain type of subject disproportionately leaves a study.

Exploratory data analysis refers to a variety of practices which researchers can use to visualize and analyze existing sets of data. In Peirce's three modes of inference , exploratory data anlysis corresponds to abduction , or hypothesis formation. A classic and popular tool used to relate mental and neural activity is the electroencephalogram EEG , a technique using amplified electrodes on a person's scalp to measure voltage changes in different parts of the brain.

Hans Berger , the first researcher to use EEG on an unopened skull, quickly found that brains exhibit signature " brain waves ": Researchers subsequently refined statistical methods for synthesizing the electrode data, and identified unique brain wave patterns such as the delta wave observed during non-REM sleep.

Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography , both of which track the flow of blood through the brain. These technologies provide more localized information about activity in the brain and create representations of the brain with widespread appeal. They also provide insight which avoids the classic problems of subjective self-reporting. It remains challenging to draw hard conclusions about where in the brain specific thoughts originate—or even how usefully such localization corresponds with reality.

However, neuroimaging has delivered unmistakable results showing the existence of correlations between mind and brain. Some of these draw on a systemic neural network model rather than a localized function model. Psychiatric interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and drugs also provide information about brain—mind interactions.

Psychopharmacology is the study of drug-induced mental effects. Computational modeling is a tool used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate behavior. Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power.

Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human. Computational neuroscience uses mathematical models to simulate the brain. Another method is symbolic modeling, which represents many mental objects using variables and rules. Other types of modeling include dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. Animal experiments aid in investigating many aspects of human psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, memory, and thought, to name a few.

In the s, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. Non-human primates , cats, dogs, pigeons, rats , and other rodents are often used in psychological experiments.

Ideally, controlled experiments introduce only one independent variable at a time, in order to ascertain its unique effects upon dependent variables.

These conditions are approximated best in laboratory settings. In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary so widely, and depend upon so many factors, that it is difficult to control important variables for human subjects. There are pitfalls in generalizing findings from animal studies to humans through animal models. Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.

Research in this area explores the behavior of many species, from insects to primates. It is closely related to other disciplines that study animal behavior such as ethology. Research designed to answer questions about the current state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals is known as descriptive research.

Descriptive research can be qualitative or quantitative in orientation. Qualitative research is descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior and with the hope of discovering and understanding phenomena that might have been missed if only more cursory examinations have been made.

Qualitative psychological research methods include interviews , first-hand observation, and participant observation. Creswell identifies five main possibilities for qualitative research, including narrative, phenomenology , ethnography , case study , and grounded theory. Qualitative researchers [] sometimes aim to enrich interpretations or critiques of symbols , subjective experiences, or social structures. Sometimes hermeneutic and critical aims can give rise to quantitative research, as in Erich Fromm 's study of Nazi voting [ citation needed ] or Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority.

Just as Jane Goodall studied chimpanzee social and family life by careful observation of chimpanzee behavior in the field, psychologists conduct naturalistic observation of ongoing human social, professional, and family life. Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed, and other times the participants do not know they are being observed.

Strict ethical guidelines must be followed when covert observation is being carried out. Fanelli argues that this is because researchers in "softer" sciences have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases. Some popular media outlets have in recent years spotlighted a replication crisis in psychology, arguing that many findings in the field cannot be reproduced.

Repeats of some famous studies have not reached the same conclusions, and some researchers have been accused of outright fraud in their results. Focus on this issue has led to renewed efforts in the discipline to re-test important findings. Some critics view statistical hypothesis testing as misplaced.

Psychologist and statistician Jacob Cohen wrote in that psychologists routinely confuse statistical significance with practical importance , enthusiastically reporting great certainty in unimportant facts. General , and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Of these articles, 71 were amenable to GRIM test analysis; 36 of these contained at least one impossible value and 16 contained multiple impossible values. In , a group of researchers reported a systemic bias in psychology studies towards WEIRD "western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic" subjects.

Some observers perceive a gap between scientific theory and its application—in particular, the application of unsupported or unsound clinical practices. Ethical standards in the discipline have changed over time. The most important contemporary standards are informed and voluntary consent. Later, most countries and scientific journals adopted the Declaration of Helsinki.

All of these measures encouraged researchers to obtain informed consent from human participants in experimental studies. A number of influential studies led to the establishment of this rule; such studies included the MIT and Fernald School radioisotope studies, the Thalidomide tragedy , the Willowbrook hepatitis study, and Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority. University psychology departments have ethics committees dedicated to the rights and well-being of research subjects.

Researchers in psychology must gain approval of their research projects before conducting any experiment to protect the interests of human participants and laboratory animals. This code has guided the formation of licensing laws in most American states. It has changed multiple times over the decades since its adoption. In , the APA revised its policies on advertising and referral fees to negotiate the end of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission.

The incarnation was the first to distinguish between "aspirational" ethical standards and "enforceable" ones. Some of the ethical issues considered most important are the requirement to practice only within the area of competence, to maintain confidentiality with the patients, and to avoid sexual relations with them.

Another important principle is informed consent , the idea that a patient or research subject must understand and freely choose a procedure they are undergoing. Current ethical guidelines state that using non-human animals for scientific purposes is only acceptable when the harm physical or psychological done to animals is outweighed by the benefits of the research.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Phycology , Physiology , or Psychiatry. List of psychology organizations. Outline of psychology , List of psychology disciplines , Applied psychology , and Subfields of psychology.

Educational psychology and School psychology. Psychological research and List of psychological research methods. For other uses, see Weird. Indeed, cognitive-behavioral therapists counsel their clients to become aware of maladaptive thought patterns, the nature of which the clients previously had not been conscious. For instance, medicine draws from psychology most heavily through neurology and psychiatry, whereas the social sciences draw directly from most of the specialties within psychology.

Gateways to mind and behavior 12th ed. Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 10 December Edited by Andrew M. Oxford University Press Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ancient accounts of mind and soul. A Student Friendly Approach. The Definition and History of Psychology. Paranjpe, "From Tradition through Colonialism to Globalization: Reflections on the History of Psychology in India", in Brock ed. Gundlach, "Germany", in Baker ed. Baker, "The Internationalization of Psychology: A History", in Baker ed.

James Goodwin, "United States", in Baker ed. An overview of his life and psychological work". In fact, in the period between and , the Rockefellers were almost the sole support of sex research in the United States. The decisions made by their scientific advisers about the nature of the research to be supported and how it was conducted, as well as the topics eligible for research support, shaped the whole field of sex research and, in many ways, still continue to support it.

One graduate of the Record Office training program wrote, 'I hope to serve the cause by infiltrating eugenics into the minds of teachers. It may interest you to know that each student who takes psychology here works up his family history and plots his family tree.

In the case of psychotherapy, he defined health in terms of blood, strong will, proficiency, discipline, Zucht und Ordnung , community, heroic bearing, and physical fitness. Schultz-Hencke also took the opportunity in to criticize psychoanalysis for providing an unfortunate tendency toward the exculpation of the criminal. Psychoanalysis also attracted the interest of Soviet psychology as a materialist trend that had challenged the credentials of classical introspective psychology.

The reluctance of the pre-Revolutionary establishment to propagate psychoanalysis also played a positive role in the post-Revolutionary years; it was a field uncompromised by ties to old-regime science. Leading Marxist philosophers earlier associated with psychology—including Yuri Frankfurt, Nikolai Karev, and Ivan Luppol—were executed in prison camps. The same fate awaited Alexei Gastev and Isaak Shipilrein. Those who survived lived in an atmosphere of total suspicion. Books and newspapers were constantly being recalled from libraries to rid them of 'obsolete' names and references.

Activity should not be regarded as an attribute of the individual but rather as an all-embracing system that 'captures' individuals and 'forces' them to behave a certain way. This approach may be traced back to the assertion of Wilhelm Humboldt that it is not man who has language as an attribute, but rather language that 'possesses' man. This new Soviet psychology leaned heavily on Lenin's theory of reflection, which was unearthed in his two volumes posthumously published in Toward the late twenties, a group of Soviet research psychologists headed by Vygotskii, along with Luria and Leont'ev, laid the groundwork for a Marxist-Leninist approach to psychic development.

Fowler, "Professional Organizations", in Weiner ed. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , 1st. A biological characteristic is linked to well-being". Retrieved 20 April The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford University Press, p. For psychology, Grimshaw discussed behaviorism's goals of modification, and suggested that behaviorist principles reinforced a hierarchical position between controller and controlled and that behaviorism was in principle an antidemocratic program.

Zola, "Biological Psychology", in Weiner ed. Nelson, "Volume Preface", in Weiner ed. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. American Psychologist 62 6 , — Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication". Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. Due to the significance of his work, Tolman is considered to be the founder of a school of thought about learning that is today called cognitive-behaviorism ". A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science.

A social learning analysis. Australian Journal of Psychology. IV and V 2nd ed. Routledge and Keagan Paul, , pp. Mayfield Publishing Company, , pp. The feeling of what happens: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain ; Eric Kandel ; Joseph E. The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life Touchstone ed. Original work published New York and Oxford: A leg to stand on.

Clinical studies in neuro-psychoanalysis: Introduction to a depth neuropsychology. Karnac Books; Solms, M. The brain and the inner world: An introduction to the neuroscience of subjective experience. Other Press ; and Douglas Watt. Archived from the original on 11 February The Dialectics of Humanistic Psychology.

Sutich, American association for humanistic psychology, Articles of association. Palo Alto, CA mimeographed: August 28, ; in Severin ed. An introduction to the history of psychology. Man's search for meaning rev. Logotherapeutic Transcendence and its Secular Implications for Theology". Perspectives on Personality 5th ed. The most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, 6 2 , — The Psychologist , May, — An improved definition, from 10 researches, of second-order personality factors in Q-data with cross-cultural checks.

Journal of Social Psychology, 86 , — A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, , — Changes in personality traits in adulthood. Australian and New Zealand 3rd edition pp. The enriched behavioral prediction equation and its impact on structured learning and the dynamic calculus. Psychological Review, , — Australian Psychologist, 30 , Morey, "Measuring Personality and Psychopathology" in Weiner ed.

Research Methods in Psychology. A perspective on developments in assessing psychopathology: Attention, Awareness, and Control". Also see web version Archived 9 October at the Wayback Machine.. Archived from the original PDF on 22 July Perspectives on Psychological Science. Fanselow, "Motivation", in Weiner ed.

Tory Higgins , Beyond Pleasure and Pain: Aarts; Hassin; Gollwitzer Perceiving is for Pursuing" PDF. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Baumeister , "Can Satisfaction Reinforce Wanting? Current Directions in Psychological Science. American Journal of Human Genetics. The Unsettled Legacy of Buck v. Testing occurs in settings as diverse as schools, civil service, industry, medical clinics, and counseling centers. Most persons have taken dozens of tests and thought nothing of it.

Yet, by the time the typical individual reaches retirement age, it is likely that psychological test results will have helped to shape his or her destiny. Widiger, "Volume Preface", in Weiner ed.

The American Journal of Psychiatry. New survey and analysis of components". Integrative and eclectic counselling and psychotherapy. The eclectic and integrative paradigm: Between the Scylla of confluence and the Charybdis of confusion. In Handbook of Counselling Psychology R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 1 June Koppes, "Industrial-Organizational Psychology", in Weiner ed. An Army Clinical Psychologist" in Morgan et al. Linebarger , Psychological Warfare ; Washington: Combat Forces Press, Velicer, "Volume Preface" in Weiner ed. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Archived 11 June at the Wayback Machine. Borkovec, "Psychotherapy Outcome Research", in Weiner ed. Mark, "Program Evaluation" in Weiner ed.

Kirk , "Experimental Design" in Weiner ed. Schmidt and John E. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Archived from the original PDF on 31 October What can fMRI research tell us about psychological phenomena? International Journal of Psychophysiology. Archived from the original PDF on 9 January The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 1 July The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. The Consequences of economic rhetoric. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 10 April Journal of the American Statistical Association. Retrieved 29 January Social Psychological and Personality Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 33, 61— The public at risk".

The Scientific Re-view of Alternative Medicine. J Exp Anal Behav. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection. Booth is explicitly discussing this experiment. His next sentence is, "His most recent outrage consists of placing monkeys in 'solitary' for twenty days—what he calls a 'vertical chamber apparatus History Philosophy Portal Psychologist.

Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Psychophysics Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys. Anthropology archaeology cultural linguistics social Economics microeconomics macroeconomics Geography human integrative History cultural economic military political social Law jurisprudence legal history legal systems Political science international relations psephology public administration public policy Psychology abnormal biological cognitive developmental personality social Sociology criminology demography internet rural urban.

Anthrozoology Area studies Business studies Cognitive science Communication studies Community studies Cultural studies Development studies Education Environmental social science studies Food studies Gender studies Global studies History of technology Human ecology Information science International studies Media studies Philosophy of science economics history psychology social science Planning land use regional urban Political ecology Political economy Public health Regional science Science and technology studies Science studies historical Social work.

Humanities Geisteswissenschaft Human science. Index Journals Outline Wikiversity. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Use dmy dates from August All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from June All Wikipedia articles needing clarification Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October Pages containing links to subscription-or-libraries content Articles with Curlie links Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with HDS identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.

It is also called dispositional attribution. It can adjust its shape to focus light from objects that are near or far away. Other symptoms may include changed sleeping or eating patterns, low energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty concentrating, and recurrent thoughts about suicide. It is used as a measure of performance on intelligence tests.

It can also be called vicarious conditioning. This point is also called the blind spot. It is active during states of relaxation. Expectations of improvement contribute to placebo effects. It is the operating principle of the id. Procedural memory is usually considered implicit. It is used to assess a psychological disorder. It is also a theory of personality developed by Freud that focuses on unconscious forces, the importance of childhood experiences, and division of the psyche into the id, ego, and superego.

These theories emphasize unconscious motives and desires and the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. It is also called paradoxical sleep. It also acts as the operating principle of the ego. This interaction results in personality. A neuron during this time is inactive. It occurs as a result of a fixed-interval schedule.

It is also called a conditioned punisher. It is also called a conditioned reinforcer. The self-concept includes all the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs people have about themselves.

They are located in the inner ear. The disorder begins before age thirty and continues for many years. It is also called source misattribution or source monitoring error. It also sometimes refers to circumstances that threaten well-being, to the response people have to threatening circumstances, or to the process of evaluating and coping with threatening circumstances.

It is usually a permanent condition, characterized by involuntary movements. It is often used to measure the need for achievement. It states that inherited characteristics that give an organism a reproductive or survival advantage are passed on more often to future generations than other inherited characteristics.

Other Psychology Terms

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

a psychological or physiological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected .

Privacy FAQs

Psychological terms synonyms, Psychological terms pronunciation, Psychological terms translation, English dictionary definition of Psychological terms.) n. pl. psy·chol·o·gies 1. The science that deals with mental processes and behavior. 2. The emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual, a.

About Our Ads

Today, psychology is concerned with the science or study of the mind and behavior. Many branches of psychology are differentiated by the specific field to which they belong, such as animal psychology, child psychology, and sports psychology. Health psychology - A branch of psychology that focuses on the relationship between psychosocial factors and the emergence, progression, and treatment of illness. Heritability - A mathematical estimate that indicates how much of a trait’s variation in a population can be attributed to genetic factors.

Cookie Info

(psychology) unconscious internalization of aspects of the world (especially aspects of persons) within the self in such a way that the internalized representation takes over the psychological functions of the external objects. The physiological and psychological reaction to an expected danger, whether real or imagined. Aphasia The impairment of the ability to communicate either through oral or written discourse as a result of brain damage.