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# Research Purpose, Hypotheses, and Questions

## Research techniques and education

❶It is easy to see how important a question is to a research, as without formulating a question that is well defined, it is impossible to conduct research. Does the amount of calcium in the diet of elementary school children effect the number of cavities they have per year?   For example, let's take two fairly simple variables: First of all, let's contrast an experimental hypothesis with a question: Another way of differentiating among experimental hypotheses is to contrast directional and non-directional hypothesis.

A directional hypothesis is more specific, in that the experimenter predicts, not only that a specific relationship will exist, but, further, the direction of that relationship. Finally, we can also differentiate hypotheses that imply causality vs those that are relational. A directional and causal hypothesis is the most specific of those discussed so far. We will address the topic of causality in research design in much more detail in future lessons.

Further, the greater the specificity, the less likely we are to find our predicted results just by chance. This is why, for example, we can be more confident of research results that are consistent with a causal-directional hypothesis, than is the case of findings that are consistent with a non-directional hypothesis. More specific and stringent predictions are used more frequently in areas in which a great deal is already known, while less stringent predictions and questions are more common in "exploratory" studies, in areas where a great deal is not known.

We can actually think of these aspects of research questions and hypotheses as three variables, each with two levels, as we discussed in the variables tutorials. What's more we can examine the relationship among these "variables" by viewing them in the form of two, two by two 2 x 2 matrices.

This is illustrated below with example questions and hypotheses based on the two variables "stress" and "health".

However, it is not possible to come up with an example for each cell of these matrices because it is not possible to propose a non-directional and causal hypothesis. Hypothesis are used in deductive research, where researchers use logic and scientific findings to either prove or disprove assumptions. Heuristic research is based on experience, where researchers use observations to learn about the research subject. A hypothesis is defined as an educated guess, while a research question is simply the researcher wondering about the world.

Hypothesis are part of the scientific research method. They are employed in research in science, sociology, mathematics and more. Research questions are part of heuristic research methods, and are also used in many fields including literature, and sociology.

As its name suggests, research questions are always written as questions. Hypothesis are written as statements preceded with the words "I predict. Before writing a hypothesis, the researcher must determine what others have discovered about this subject. On the other hand, a research question requires less preparation, but focus and structure is critical.

For example, a researcher using a hypothesis would look up studies about bleach, information on the chemical properties of the chemical when heated and data about its effectiveness before writing the hypothesis. When using a research question, the researcher would think about how to phrase the question to ensure its scope is not too broad, too narrow or impossible to answer. ## Main Topics

Research Question vs Hypothesis Research in social sciences covers a lot of subjects and makes use of many tools. It all begins with the formulation of a research question or a hypothesis that is sought to be tested and verified under different circumstances. There are many similarities between a research question and a hypothesis [ ].

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A research question is the question that the research project sets out to answer. In actual fact, a research study may set out to answer several questions. State an example within empirical software engineering research. Update Cancel. ad by Atlassian. The difference between a research question and a research hypothesis is known versus.