Skip Nav

Citing Within Your Paper

Writing Help

❶If your text does not include an author, include the web page or article title within quotation marks " ":

Is it Plagiarism?

Don't want to cite by hand?
Your Answer
Language & Lit

Simply add another line break and begin writing along the left margin with no indent. Understand how to use indirect quotes. Indirect quoting, or paraphrasing, is when you use a sentence from a source but change the wording slightly into your own words. Change the structure of the sentence by moving clauses around.

Aim to change at least half of the sentence into a new structure, but also make sure that the grammar is correct and the meaning of the sentence is still clear. You can use a thesaurus to exchange words with synonyms. Paraphrasing should only be done if you are certain that you understand the content you are copying. Method 1 Quiz What should you do when paraphrasing quotes? Change at least 50 percent of the sentence. Use a thesaurus to replace words with synonyms.

Understand the content you want to paraphrase. Don't look at the quote while paraphrasing. All of the above. Know where to place commas and periods.

To use a comma, you might structure the quote with in sentence like this: To use a period, you might structure the quote like this: Know where to place exclamation points and question marks.

If there is an exclamation point or question mark inside the quote you are using, keep it inside the quotation marks. If you are asking a question about a quoted question, use a single question mark inside the quotations. Example of a quotation that comes with a question mark: Example of asking a question about a quotation: Example of a question about a quoted question: When you use the majority of, but not all of a quote, or if you begin in the middle of a quote, it is necessary to insert ellipses.

These show that some of the sentence is not included in your quote. Ellipses can be used in the center of a quote to leave out words that you feel add unnecessary length to the statement without adding value. If you are only use a part of a quote from the center of a selection, it is just a partial or dropped quote. However, keep in mind that ellipses rarely come at the beginning of a quotation.

You can include brackets in a quote to give a few words, typically the name of a person or place that the quote is focusing on, to help the reader understand the context.

Use colons and semicolons correctly. If you are using a colon or semicolon after a quote, or there is a colon or semicolon at the end of your selection which you are quoting, place the punctuation mark outside of the quotation marks. Copy the quote exactly. If you are using a direct quote, it is imperative that you copy it word-for-word.

Include all spelling and grammatical mistakes as well, even if you are aware they are incorrect. If your quote has a mistake that you are aware of, put [sic] italicized and in brackets immediately after the mistake. This signifies that you are aware that there is a mistake in the quote, and that it is not a mistake on your part.

Method 2 Quiz When do you use brackets in quotes? When you use the majority, but not all of, a quote. To add important information that is not included in the quote itself. If you use a direct quote. To include an exclamation point or question mark inside the quote you are using. Quote in MLA format. You can include these together in a parenthetical citation, or you can mention one in your writing and the other in a parenthetical citation. Quote in APA format.

They must be included together in the parentheses, or you can mention the name of the author in your writing and put just the year in parentheses afterwards. Quote in Chicago style. The Chicago style of formatting research essays uses footnotes at the bottom of your page rather than in-text parenthetical citations.

In order to cite a quotation in your paper, add a footnote number immediately after the ending quotation mark not inside the quotes. This should be paired with a matching citation at the bottom of the page. Method 3 Quiz How do you quote a source in Chicago style?

Use the author's first name and the title of the source. Use footnotes at the bottom of your page rather than in-text parenthetical citations. Choose the quotations you want to use in the paper with care. Overuse of quotations is considered sloppy in academic writing because it relies too heavily on others to make your point.

Show not only that can you write, but that you can also judiciously sift through large amounts of research to glean the most important quotes that will support your argument. Quotes should not be used as filler, followed by a long summary or paraphrase of what you copied. Use quotes to highlight a specific phrase.

Often times in academic writing, a very specific phrase or term may be used and described by an empirical source. If there is no way for your to better explain or reword this phrase, use a quotation. When possible, try to paraphrase or use an indirect quote to avoid seeming lazy with your writing.

Quotations can be particularly helpful for an argumentative or study-based research paper, as you can use them to provide direct evidence for an important point you are making. Add oomph to your position by quoting someone who also backs it, with good reason. Be sure to elaborate on their point after quoting though, rather than just dropping it into your essay without further discussion.

Be clear when using quotes. Although helpful at times, quotes that have not been clearly attributed can be confusing and out of place. Make sure your quote is given context before stating it.

Although you should have a citation involved as well, it is important to make it clear to the reader that the ideas you are presenting are those of someone else. Include bibliographic information at the end of the paper. A "Works Cited" page, or other bibliographic source page, is used at the end of the paper to list full publishing information on each quoted source. Method 4 Quiz True or False: It depends on the required format.

The example uses MLA which requires the author and page number in parentheses following the quote with the full citation listed on a separate sheet as a bibliography. Other styles require different citations. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 9. In the body of a thesis paper, how many quotes should be used in each paragraph? You could use around one to two quotes per paragraph.

This keeps them on topic and keeps the paragraphs from becoming too long. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 4. Should I discuss the quote in my paper before or after the quoted lines? You need to lead into the quote and then follow up with additional information. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 1. Include the source of publication, title, link of retrieving information etc.

Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0. Is it legal for me to write a Thesaurus of descriptive sentences 'she raised a gloved hand to shield her eyes', 'a sideways look', etc. Answer this question Flag as What is the correct way to cite films according to the Chicago style? While typing the third page I found it is starting with a long quote indented. Can this be right or should I cut short the paragraph before?

How do I quote from a website with an author? In what situations is it appropriate to use double nested quotes? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips Keep a list of quotations as you take research notes, and star your favorites to return later. Watch for quotations that are quoted by other researchers again and again.

Often secondary material will give you hints to finding the best parts of the primary sources. Quote the opposition so that you can directly pick apart their argument. I cannot obtain the original paper as our libraries cannot get it perhaps if I had unlimited time and so on I could find it?

The paper I do have sufficiently details the data from the secondary source, and those data are all I need. Just data, in a table, very simple. There's a lot of hand-wringing going on here, and some insinuations about my character, but just have a little generosity of spirit for and some faith in your fellow humans. Possible duplicate of academia. Someone in the comments asked: That also tells me that the term is 'secondary source'.

Another nice tool I've just found is this one: I always interpret this to mean that Thomas and Cullen said something about Featherstone et al that is not obvious and often contentious or wrong. I associate it most with student lab reports. In such case do I need to list original paper also in reference section or only the recent one I am referring to?

Blah blah, blahblahblah, blah blah blah-blah blah qtd. If you cannot get that paper, you should not cite it. No, you have a moral obligation to cite it regardless and the etymology is completely irrelevant. Deliberately not citing a relevant paper because you couldn't track down a copy is a potentially career-destroying ethical mistake. It's a matter of credit and historical information, not just ease of availability.

Of course, if you don't have access yourself you need to trust someone else as to what is in there, and you should indicate that, but it's not a reason to erase someone from history. This is plainly wrong: AnonymousMathematician I think the obligation is to get the source and have it translated if necessary and then decide if you should cite it. Citing a source without having the source is unethical. Citing something has nothing to do with reading or not reading it.

It means having it appear in your bibliography and get referred to in your text. You're right that there are issues in how you refer to it: Pretending to have read something you haven't is indeed ethically problematic, but that's a matter of how you cite it, not whether you cite it.

Main navigation

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quorting. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.

Privacy FAQs

There are many ways to cite your source within a research paper; one of the most common is the MLA in-text parenthetical citation method. Quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and any other material used from a source must be cited.

About Our Ads

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.

Cookie Info

To cite a source you found in another source, state the original author within your sentence and state "as cited in" followed by the last name and year of the secondary source. For example: According to Smith (as cited in Brown, ) students need faculty and staff support to succeed. In order to avoid plagiarism, it is extremely important that you cite all words and ideas that you got from somewhere else. Put the information about the source in parentheses in the text of your paper as opposed to a footnote where the source information is at the bottom of the page or an endnote where it goes at the end of your paper.